THE STORY OF TOBACCO
“The true face of smoking is disease, death and horror and not the glamour and sophistication the pushers in the tobacco industry try to portray”.
Tobacco was first used by the peoples of the pre-Columbian Americas. Native Americans apparently cultivated the plant and smoked it in pipes for medicinal and ceremonial purposes.
Christopher Columbus brought a few tobacco leaves and seeds with him back to Europe, but most Europeans didn’t get their first taste of tobacco until the mid-16th century, when adventurers and diplomats like France’s Jean Nicot — for whom nicotine is named — began to popularize its use. Tobacco was introduced to France in 1556, Portugal in 1558, and Spain in 1559, and England in 1565.
The first successful commercial crop was cultivated in Virginia in 1612 by Englishman John Rolfe. Within seven years, it was the colony’s largest export. Over the next two centuries, the growth of tobacco as a cash crop fueled the demand in North America for slave labor.
The seed of a tobacco plant was very small. A one ounce sample contains about 300000 seeds. As early as 1BC American Indians began using tobacco in many different ways, such as religious and medical treatment/ practices.
TYPES OF TOBACCO:
BIDI: It consists of small amount of tobacco hand wrapped in dried tempura leaf and tied with sting.
CIGARS: Cigars are made up of air cured and a fermented tobacco with a tobacco wrapper and it comes in many shapes and size.
PIPES: Pipes are made up of briar, slate clay or other substances tobacco is placed in the bowl and inhaled through the stem sometimes through water.
STICKS: It is made from sun cured tobacco known as brus and wrapped in cigarette paper.
CHEWING TOBACCO: It is also known as plug, loose leaf or twist. Pan masala or betel quid consists of tobacco areas nuts and staked lime wrapped in a betel leaf, Varieties of pan include kaddipudi, zarda, mishri and pills.
• Sexual impotence
• Fertility problem
• Heart attacks
• Skin problems
• Impaired brain functions
In 2000 smoking was practiced by 1.2 billion people predicted to raise 1.45 billion people in 2010 and 1.5 to 1.9 billion by 2025. As of 2002 about 20 of young teens (13-15) smoke worldwide with 80,000 to 1, 00,000 children taking up the addiction every day. Half of those who begin smoking in adolescent years are projected to go on to smoke for 15 20 years of the 1.22 billion smokers, 1 billion of them live in developing nation. Rate of smoking have leveled off or declined in the developed world. In the developing world tobacco consumption is rising by 3.4 per year as of 2002.
WHO in 2004 projected 58.8 million deaths to occur globally from which 5.4 million is tobacco attributed and 4.9 million as of 2007.
In India smoking was prohibited in public places nationwide from 2 October 2008. There are approximately 120 million smokers in India. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), India is home to 12% of the world’s smokers. More than 1 million people die every year due to tobacco related illnesses. As of 2015, the number of men smoking tobacco in rose to 108 million, an increase of 36%, between 1998 and 2015.
According to the study, “A Nationally Representative Case-Control Study of Smoking and Death in India”, tobacco will be responsible for 1 in 5 of all male deaths and 1 in 20 of all female deaths in the country by 2010. This means approximately 1 million Indians would die annually from smoking by 2010. According to the Indian Heart Association (IHA), India accounts for 60% of the world’s heart disease burden, despite having less than 20% of the world’s population. The IHA has identified reduction in smoking as a significant target of cardiovascular health prevention efforts.
A survey conducted by the International Institute of Population Science at the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, reveals that 26.6% of people in Jammu and Kashmir smoke, the highest rate in the country. The highest numbers of beedi smokers are in Uttarakhand.
Smoking causes illness and death, among other disadvantages. It is the most preventable lifestyle factor affecting human health. Smoking harms every organ in the body including heart, blood vessels, lungs and fertility are all negatively affected by smoking and the chemicals in cigarettes.
Heart and Blood Vessel Health
Smoking changes the structure of blood vessels. This can lead to the buildup of plaque that hardens and narrows the vessels, causing a disease called atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a common cause of heart attacks and peripheral artery disease. Smoking increases your likelihood of developing high blood pressure. The carbon monoxide inhaled from cigarette smoke interferes with the way oxygen is carried by your blood to organs, including the heart, which links it to heart disease. Smoking also increases the incidence of blood clots, which can lead to strokes.
• Cognitive impairment
• Affects problem solving and decision making ability
• Memory related problems
• Oxidative stress
The lung is the main target of the smoke inhaled by cigarettes because it has direct contact with the chemicals. Smoking is the most common cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD, which affects the function of the lungs and how they deliver oxygen into the body. COPD includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema and involves a change in the structure of your lung tissue and airways. If you have asthma, smoking can increase the frequency and severity of attacks. Smoking diminishes lung function, so you may experience shortness of breath even with little or no exertion.
Effects on Fertility and Babies
Smoking contributes to infertility and decreases the chance of conception whether you are a man or woman. Men who smoke are found to have a reduced total sperm count in addition to a decrease in the sperm’s ability to fertilize an egg. Smoking diminishes the capacity of an ovary to create eggs that are capable of healthy fertilization. If you are pregnant and a smoker, you increase the risk of a low-birth-weight or preterm baby. An estimated 20 to 30 percent of low-birth-weight babies and 14 percent of preterm births are attributed to smoking in pregnancy, according To a famous study. There is a higher chance for your baby to have asthma if you smoke during pregnancy. Even some full-term babies will have diminished lung function if you smoked during your pregnancy.
Smoking Causes Cancer
An estimated 1 in 3 deaths from cancer are attributed to smoking, notes the U.S. Surgeon General’s 2010 report on the relationship between smoking and disease. The report points out that smoking causes 87 percent of lung cancer deaths and is also responsible for cancer in many other parts of the body. If you smoke, you are at higher risk for cancers of the oesophagus, throat, mouth, and stomach, among others. In addition to the addictive ingredient of nicotine, cigarettes contain about 600 ingredients. When burned, 4,000 chemicals are created, approximately 50 of which are carcinogenic.
According to a survey conducted by the Ministry of health and family welfare
• Among daily tobacco users, 60.2% consumed tobacco within half an hour of waking up.
• Current cigarette smokers : 5.7% of adults ;10.3% of males and 0.8% of females
• Current bidi smokers : 9.2% of adults ; 16.0% of males and 1.9% of females
• Five in ten current smokers (46.6%) and users of smokeless tobacco (45.2%) planned to quit or at least thought of quitting.
• Among minors (Age: 15-17), 9.6% consumed tobacco in some form and most of them were able to purchase tobacco products.
WHY SHOULD WE STOP?
It’s not just you, that is being killed, but your kids, family and everyone around you.
Smoking kills. Passive smoking kills too.
All of us that smoke are ignorant and cruel to kill others unknowingly.
Wake up from the slumber. Let’s make the world literally a better place.
TO QUIT SMOKING DIAL : 99402 21212 / 96772 63936